After conquering Zaranj, a column of the army pushed north, conquering Kabul and Ghazni, in the Hindu Kush mountain range, while another column moved through Quetta District in north-western Balochistan and conquered the area up to the ancient cities of Dawar and Qandabil (Bolan).
It is documented that the major settlements, falling within today's province, became in 654 controlled by the Rashidun caliphate, except for the well-defended mountain town of Qai Qan which is now Kalat.
Mohenjo-Daro and Mehrgarh were among centers of the Indus Valley Civilisation in the modern-day province.
During the caliphate of Ali, revolt broke out in southern Balochistan's Makran region.
In 663, during the reign of Umayyad Caliph Muawiyah I his Muslim rule lost control of north-eastern Balochistan and Kalat when Haris ibn Marah and a large part of his army died in battle against a revolt in Kalat.
The province is bordered by Afghanistan to the north and north-west, Iran to the south-west, Punjab and Sindh, and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and the Federally Administered Tribal Areas to the north-east. Balochistan is located on the south-eastern part of the Iranian plateau.
It borders the geopolitical regions of the Middle East and Southwest Asia, Central Asia and South Asia.